Margaret McFall-Ngai & Edward (Ned) Ruby

Ruby Lab: Publications














  • Visick KL, Ruby EG. Vibrio fischeri and its host: it takes two to tango. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 2006 9(6), 632-8
  • Sycuro LK, Ruby EG, McFall-Ngai MJ. Confocal microscopy of the light organ crypts in juvenile Euprymna scolopes reveals their morphological complexity and dynamic function in symbiosis. J. Morphol. 2006 267(5), 555-68



  • Millikan DS, Ruby EG. Vibrio fischeri flagellin A is essential for normal motility and for symbiotic competence during initial squid light organ colonization. J. Bacteriol. 2004 186(13), 4315-25
  • Lupp C, Ruby EG. Vibrio fischeri LuxS and AinS: comparative study of two signal synthases. J. Bacteriol. 2004 186(12), 3873-81
  • Ruby EG, Henderson B, McFall-Ngai MJ. We Get By with a Little Help from Our (Little) Friends. Science 2004 303(5662), 1305-7


  • Whistler CA, Ruby EG. GacA regulates symbiotic colonization traits of Vibrio fischeri and facilitates a beneficial association with an animal host. J. Bacteriol. 2003 185(24), 7202-12
  • McCann J, Stabb EV, Millikan DS, Ruby EG. Population dynamics of Vibrio fischeri during infection of Euprymna scolopes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2003 69(10), 5928-34
  • Lupp C, Urbanowski M, Greenberg EP, Ruby EG. The Vibrio fischeri quorum-sensing systems ain and lux sequentially induce luminescence gene expression and are important for persistence in the squid host. Mol. Microbiol. 2003 50(1), 319-31
  • Millikan DS, Ruby EG. FlrA, a sigma54-dependent transcriptional activator in Vibrio fischeri, is required for motility and symbiotic light-organ colonization. J. Bacteriol. 2003 185(12), 3547-57
  • Miyamoto CM, Dunlap PV, Ruby EG, Meighen EA. LuxO controls luxR expression in Vibrio harveyi: evidence for a common regulatory mechanism in Vibrio. Mol. Microbiol. 2003 48(2), 537-48
  • Stabb EV, Ruby EG. Contribution of pilA to competitive colonization of the squid Euprymna scolopes by Vibrio fischeri. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2003 69(2), 820-6


  • Stabb EV, Ruby EG. RP4-based plasmids for conjugation between Escherichia coli and members of the Vibrionaceae. Meth. Enzymol. 2002 358(), 413-26
  • Lupp C, Hancock RE, Ruby EG. The Vibrio fischeri sapABCDF locus is required for normal growth, both in culture and in symbiosis. Arch. Microbiol. 2002 179(1), 57-65
  • Fidopiastis PM, Miyamoto CM, Jobling MG, Meighen EA, Ruby EG. LitR, a new transcriptional activator in Vibrio fischeri, regulates luminescence and symbiotic light organ colonization. Mol. Microbiol. 2002 45(1), 131-43
  • Millikan DS, Ruby EG. Alterations in Vibrio fischeri motility correlate with a delay in symbiosis initiation and are associated with additional symbiotic colonization defects. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2002 68(5), 2519-28


  • Aeckersberg F, Lupp C, Feliciano B, Ruby EG. Vibrio fischeri outer membrane protein OmpU plays a role in normal symbiotic colonization. J. Bacteriol. 2001 183(22), 6590-7
  • Stabb EV, Reich KA, Ruby EG. Vibrio fischeri genes hvnA and hvnB encode secreted NAD(+)-glycohydrolases. J. Bacteriol. 2001 183(1), 309-17
  • Stabb EV, Visick DS, Millikan AA, Corcoran L, Gilson SV, Nyholm MJ, McFall-Ngai MJ, Ruby EG. The Vibrio fischeri-Euprymna scolopes symbiosis: A model marine animal-bacteria interaction. 2001 (), 269-77


  • Journal cover from Curr. Opin. Microbiol.McFall-Ngai MJ, Ruby EG. Developmental biology in marine invertebrate symbioses. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 2000 3(6), 603-7
  • Journal cover from Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.Nyholm SV, Stabb EV, Ruby EG, McFall-Ngai MJ. Establishment of an animal-bacterial association: recruiting symbiotic vibrios from the environment. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2000 97(18), 10231-5
  • Visick KL, Foster J, Doino J, McFall-Ngai MJ, Ruby EG. Vibrio fischeri lux genes play an important role in colonization and development of the host light organ. J. Bacteriol. 2000 182(16), 4578-86
  • Graf J, Ruby EG. Novel effects of a transposon insertion in the Vibrio fischeri glnD gene: defects in iron uptake and symbiotic persistence in addition to nitrogen utilization. Mol. Microbiol. 2000 37(1), 168-79


  • Journal cover from Trends Microbiol.Ruby EG, McFall-Ngai MJ. Oxygen-utilizing reactions and symbiotic colonization of the squid light organ by Vibrio fischeri. Trends Microbiol. 1999 7(10), 414-20
  • Ruby EG. The Euprymna scolopes-Vibrio fischeri symbiosis: a biomedical model for the study of bacterial colonization of animal tissue. J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 1999 1(1), 13-21
  • Fidopiastis PM, Sørum H, Ruby EG. Cryptic luminescence in the cold-water fish pathogen Vibrio salmonicida. Arch. Microbiol. 1999 171(3), 205-9
  • Ruby EG. Ecology of a benign “infection”: colonization of the squid luminous organ by Vibrio fischeri. 1999 (), 217-31


  • Nishiguchi MK, Ruby EG, McFall-Ngai MJ. Competitive dominance among strains of luminous bacteria provides an unusual form of evidence for parallel evolution in Sepiolid squid-vibrio symbioses. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1998 64(9), 3209-13
  • Visick KL, Ruby EG. The periplasmic, group III catalase of Vibrio fischeri is required for normal symbiotic competence and is induced both by oxidative stress and by approach to stationary phase. J. Bacteriol. 1998 180(8), 2087-92
  • Ruby EG, Lee KH. The Vibrio fischeri-Euprymna scolopes Light Organ Association: Current Ecological Paradigms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1998 64(3), 805-12
  • Graf J, Ruby EG. Host-derived amino acids support the proliferation of symbiotic bacteria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1998 95(4), 1818-22
  • Fidopiastis PM, von Boletzky S, Ruby EG. A new niche for Vibrio logei, the predominant light organ symbiont of squids in the genus Sepiola. J. Bacteriol. 1998 180(1), 59-64
  • Journal cover from BioScienceMcFall-Ngai MJ, Ruby EG. Sepiolids and Vibrios: When First They Meet. BioScience 1998 48(4), 257-65


  • Ruby EG. Lessons from a cooperative, bacterial-animal association: the Vibrio fischeri-Euprymna scolopes light organ symbiosis. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 1997 50(), 591-624
  • Nishiguchi MK, Ruby EG, McFall-Ngai MJ. Phenotypic bioluminescence as an indicator of competitive dominance in the Euprymna-Vibrio symbiosis. 1997 (), 123-6
  • Visick KL, Ruby EG. New genetic tools for use in the marine bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri. 1997 (), 119-22


  • Visick KG, Ruby EG. Construction and symbiotic competence of a luxA-deletion mutant of Vibrio fischeri. Gene 1996 175(1-2), 89-94
  • Boettcher KJ, Ruby EG, McFall-Ngai MJ. Bioluminescence in the symbiotic squid Euprymna scolopes is controlled by a daily biological rhythm. J. Comp. Physiol. 1996 179(), 65-73


  • Boettcher KJ, Ruby EG. Detection and quantification of Vibrio fischeri autoinducer from symbiotic squid light organs. J. Bacteriol. 1995 177(4), 1053-8
  • Lee K, Ruby EG. Symbiotic Role of the Viable but Nonculturable State of Vibrio fischeri in Hawaiian Coastal Seawater. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1995 61(1), 278-83


  • Graf J, Dunlap PV, Ruby EG. Effect of transposon-induced motility mutations on colonization of the host light organ by Vibrio fischeri. J. Bacteriol. 1994 176(22), 6986-91
  • Lee KH, Ruby EG. Effect of the Squid Host on the Abundance and Distribution of Symbiotic Vibrio fischeri in Nature. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1994 60(5), 1565-71
  • Lee KH, Ruby EG. Competition between Vibrio fischeri strains during initiation and maintenance of a light organ symbiosis. J. Bacteriol. 1994 176(7), 1985-91
  • Boettcher KJ, Ruby EG. Occurrence of plasmid DNA in the sepiolid squid symbiont Vibrio fischeri. Current Microbiol. 1994 29(), 279-286


  • Ruby EG, Asato LM. Growth and flagellation of Vibrio fischeri during initiation of the sepiolid squid light organ symbiosis. Arch. Microbiol. 1993 159(2), 160-7


  • Ruby EG, McFall-Ngai MJ. A squid that glows in the night: development of an animal-bacterial mutualism. J. Bacteriol. 1992 174(15), 4865-70
  • Lee KH, Ruby EG. Detection of the Light Organ Symbiont, Vibrio fischeri, in Hawaiian Seawater by Using lux Gene Probes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1992 58(3), 942-7
  • Romo AJ, Ruby EG, Saier MH. Effect of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus infection on the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system in Escherichia coli: evidence for activation of cytoplasmic proteolysis. Res. Microbiol. 1992 143(1), 5-14


  • Journal cover from ScienceMcFall-Ngai MJ, Ruby EG. Symbiont recognition and subsequent morphogenesis as early events in an animal-bacterial mutualism. Science 1991 254(5037), 1491-4


  • Gray KM, Ruby EG. Prey-derived signals regulating duration of the developmental growth phase of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus. J. Bacteriol. 1990 172(7), 4002-7
  • Boettcher KJ, Ruby EG. Depressed light emission by symbiotic Vibrio fischeri of the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes. J. Bacteriol. 1990 172(7), 3701-6
  • Ruby EG, McFall-Ngai MJ. Morphological and physiological differentiation in the luminous bacterial symbionts of Euprymna scolopes. 1990 (), 323-6
  • McFall-Ngai MJ, Ruby EG. The changing host-tissue/symbiont relationship in the developing light organ of Euprymna scolopes (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae). 1990 (),


  • Gray KM, Ruby EG. Unbalanced growth as a normal feature of development of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus. Arch. Microbiol. 1989 152(5), 420-4


  • Araki Y, Ruby EG. A soluble enzyme activity that attaches free diaminopimelic acid to bdelloplast peptidoglycan. Biochemistry 1988 27(7), 2624-9
  • Ruby EG, McCabe JB. Metabolism of periplasmic membrane-derived oligosaccharides by the predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J. J. Bacteriol. 1988 170(2), 646-52


  • Ruby EG, Jannasch HW, Deuser WG. Fractionation of Stable Carbon Isotopes during Chemoautotrophic Growth of Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1987 53(8), 1940-3


  • Ruby EG, McCabe JB. An ATP transport system in the intracellular bacterium, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J. J. Bacteriol. 1986 167(3), 1066-70



  • Ruby EG, Greenberg EP, Hastings JW. Planktonic marine luminous bacteria: species distribution in the water column. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1980 39(), 302-6


  • Ruby EG, Nealson KH. Seasonal changes in the species composition of luminous bacteria in nearshore seawater. Limnol. Oceanogr. 1978 23(), 530-3


  • Ruby EG, Nealson KH. A luminous bacterium that emits yellow light. Science 1977 196(), 432-4


  • Ruby EG, Nealson KH. Symbiotic association of Photobacterium fischeri with the marine luminous fish Monocentris japonica: a model of symbiosis based on bacterial studies. Biol. Bull. 1976 151(3), 574-86

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Margaret McFall-Ngai & Edward Ruby

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McFall-Ngai Lab
Margaret McFall-Ngai
Phone: (808) 539-7331

Ruby Lab
Edward (Ned) Ruby
Phone: 808-539-7300