Margaret McFall-Ngai & Edward (Ned) Ruby

McFall-Ngai Lab: Publications














  • Dethlefsen L, McFall-Ngai MJ, Relman DA. An ecological and evolutionary perspective on human-microbe mutualism and disease. Nature 2007 449(), 811-8
  • Whistler CA, Koropatnick TA, Pollack A, McFall-Ngai MJ, Ruby EG. The GacA global regulator of Vibrio fischeri is required for normal host tissue responses that limit subsequent bacterial colonization. Cell. Microbiol. 2007 9(3), 766-78
  • Koropatnick TA, Kimbell JR, McFall-Ngai MJ. Responses of host hemocytes during the initiation of the squid-Vibrio symbiosis. Biol. Bull. 2007 212(1), 29-39
  • McFall-Ngai MJ. Care for the community: A memory-based immune system may have evolved in vertebrates because of the need to recognize and manage complex communities of beneficial microbes. Nature 2007 445(), 153
  • McFall-Ngai MJ. The squid-vibrio association: A naturally occurring experimental model of animal-bacterial partnerships. 2007 (),
  • McFall-Ngai MJ, de Lorenzo V. The ultimate rendezvous: microbial ecology meets industrial microbiology. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 2007 10(), 205-6





  • Nyholm SV, McFall-Ngai MJ. Dominance of Vibrio fischeri in secreted mucus outside the light organ of Euprymna scolopes: the first site of symbiont specificity. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2003 69(7), 3932-7
  • Kimbell JR, McFall-Ngai MJ. The squid-Vibrio symbioses: from demes to genes. Integr. Comp. Biol. 2003 43(2), 254-60


  • Nyholm SV, Deplancke B, Gaskins HR, Apicella MA, McFall-Ngai MJ. Roles of Vibrio fischeri and nonsymbiotic bacteria in the dynamics of mucus secretion during symbiont colonization of the Euprymna scolopes light organ. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2002 68(10), 5113-22
  • Journal cover from Dev. Biol.McFall-Ngai MJ. Unseen forces: the influence of bacteria on animal development. Dev. Biol. 2002 242(1), 1-14
  • Kimbell JR, McFall-Ngai MJ, Roderick GK. Two genetically distinct populations of bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, exist on the island of Oahu. Pac. Sci. 2002 56(3), 347-55
  • Foster JS, von Boletzky S, McFall-Ngai MJ. A Comparison of the Light Organ Development of Sepiola robusta naef and Euprymna scolopes berry (CEPHALOPODA: SEPIOLIDAE). Bull. Marine Science 2002 70(1), 141-53


  • McFall-Ngai MJ. Identifying 'prime suspects': symbioses and the evolution of multicellularity. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2001 129(4), 711-23
  • Stabb EV, Visick DS, Millikan AA, Corcoran L, Gilson SV, Nyholm MJ, McFall-Ngai MJ, Ruby EG. The Vibrio fischeri-Euprymna scolopes symbiosis: A model marine animal-bacteria interaction. 2001 (), 269-77


  • Journal cover from Curr. Opin. Microbiol.McFall-Ngai MJ, Ruby EG. Developmental biology in marine invertebrate symbioses. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 2000 3(6), 603-7
  • Journal cover from Dev. Biol.Foster JS, Apicella MA, McFall-Ngai MJ. Vibrio fischeri lipopolysaccharide induces developmental apoptosis, but not complete morphogenesis, of the Euprymna scolopes symbiotic light organ. Dev. Biol. 2000 226(2), 242-54
  • Doino Lemus J, McFall-Ngai MJ. Alterations in the proteome of the Euprymna scolopes light organ in response to symbiotic Vibrio fischeri. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2000 66(9), 4091-7
  • Journal cover from Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.Nyholm SV, Stabb EV, Ruby EG, McFall-Ngai MJ. Establishment of an animal-bacterial association: recruiting symbiotic vibrios from the environment. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2000 97(18), 10231-5
  • McFall-Ngai MJ. Negotiations between animals and bacteria: the 'diplomacy' of the squid-vibrio symbiosis. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A Mol. Integr. Physiol. 2000 126(4), 471-80
  • Visick KL, Foster J, Doino J, McFall-Ngai MJ, Ruby EG. Vibrio fischeri lux genes play an important role in colonization and development of the host light organ. J. Bacteriol. 2000 182(16), 4578-86
  • Hirsch AM, McFall-Ngai MJ. Fundamental Concepts in Symbiotic Interactions: Light and Dark, Day and Night, Squid and Legume. J. Plant Growth Regul. 2000 19(2), 113-130
  • Journal cover from J. Bacteriol.Visick KL, McFall-Ngai MJ. An exclusive contract: specificity in the Vibrio fischeri-Euprymna scolopes partnership. J. Bacteriol. 2000 182(7), 1779-87


  • Journal cover from Trends Microbiol.Ruby EG, McFall-Ngai MJ. Oxygen-utilizing reactions and symbiotic colonization of the squid light organ by Vibrio fischeri. Trends Microbiol. 1999 7(10), 414-20
  • Small AL, McFall-Ngai MJ. Halide peroxidase in tissues that interact with bacteria in the host squid Euprymna scolopes. J. Cell. Biochem. 1999 72(4), 445-57
  • McFall-Ngai MJ. Consequences of evolving with bacterial symbionts: Insights from the Squid-Vibrio associations. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 1999 30(), 235-56


  • Journal cover from American ZoologistMcFall-Ngai, M. J. The Development of Cooperative Associations Between Animals and Bacteria: Establishing Detente Among Domains. American Zoologist 1998 38(4), 593-608
  • Montgomery MK, McFall-Ngai MJ. Late postembryonic development of the symbiotic light organ of Euprymna scolopes (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae). Biol. Bull. 1998 195(3), 326-36
  • Journal cover from Biol. Bull.Nyholm SV, McFall-Ngai MJ. Sampling the light-organ microenvironment of Euprymna scolopes: description of a population of host cells in association with the bacterial symbiont Vibrio fischeri. Biol. Bull. 1998 195(2), 89-97
  • Nishiguchi MK, Ruby EG, McFall-Ngai MJ. Competitive dominance among strains of luminous bacteria provides an unusual form of evidence for parallel evolution in Sepiolid squid-vibrio symbioses. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1998 64(9), 3209-13
  • Journal cover from Dev. Genes Evol.Foster JS, McFall-Ngai MJ. Induction of apoptosis by cooperative bacteria in the morphogenesis of host epithelial tissues. Dev. Genes Evol. 1998 208(6), 295-303
  • Lamarcq LH, McFall-Ngai MJ. Induction of a gradual, reversible morphogenesis of its host's epithelial brush border by Vibrio fischeri. Infect. Immun. 1998 66(2), 777-85
  • McFall-Ngai MJ, Brennan C, Weis V, Lamarcq L. Mannose adhesin-glycan interactions in the Euprymna scolopes-Vibrio fischeri symbiosis. 1998 (), 273-6
  • Nishiguchi MK, Ruby EG, McFall-Ngai MJ. Phenotypic bioluminescence as an indicator of competitive dominance in the Euprymna-Vibrio symbiosis. 1998 (), 123-6
  • Nyholm SV, McFall-Ngai MJ. Sampling the light-organ microenvironment of Euprymna scolopes: description of a population of host cells in association with the bacterial symbiont Vibrio fischeri. Biol. Bull. 1998 195(2), 89-97
  • Journal cover from ASM NewsMcFall-Ngai, MJ. Pioneering the Squid-Vibrio Model. ASM News 1998 64(11), 639-45
  • Journal cover from BioScienceMcFall-Ngai MJ, Ruby EG. Sepiolids and Vibrios: When First They Meet. BioScience 1998 48(4), 257-65


  • Journal cover from DragonflyMcFall-Ngai MJ. Dragonfly 1997 (),
  • Holland LZ, McFall-Ngai MJ, Somero GN. Evolution of lactate dehydrogenase-A homologs of barracuda fishes (Genus Sphyraena) from different thermal environments: Differences in kinetic properties and thermal stability are due to amino acid substitutions outside of the active site. Biochemistry 1997 36(11), 3207-15
  • Nishiguchi MK, Ruby EG, McFall-Ngai MJ. Phenotypic bioluminescence as an indicator of competitive dominance in the Euprymna-Vibrio symbiosis. 1997 (), 123-26


  • Weis VM, Small AL, McFall-Ngai MJ. A peroxidase related to the mammalian antimicrobial protein myeloperoxidase in the Euprymna-Vibrio mutualism. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1996 93(24), 13683-8
  • Journal cover from Science SpectrumMcFall-Ngai MJ. Science Spectrum 1996 4(),
  • Boettcher KJ, Ruby EG, McFall-Ngai MJ. Bioluminescence in the symbiotic squid Euprymna scolopes is controlled by a daily biological rhythm. J. Comp. Physiol. 1996 179(), 65-73


  • Doino JA, McFall-Ngai MJ. A Transient Exposure to Symbiosis-Competent Bacteria Induces Light Organ Morphogenesis in the Host Squid. Biol. Bull. 1995 189(3), 347-55
  • Gates RD, Hoegh-Guldberg O, McFall-Ngai MJ, Bil KY, Muscatine L. Free amino acids exhibit anthozoan "host factor" activity: they induce the release of photosynthate from symbiotic dinoflagellates in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1995 92(16), 7430-4
  • Montgomery MK, McFall-Ngai MJ. The inductive role of bacterial symbionts in the morphogenesis of a squid light organ. Amer. Zool. 1995 35(), 372-380


  • McFall-Ngai MJ. Animal-bacterial interactions in the early life history of marine invertebrates: The Euprymna scolopes/Vibrio fischeri symbiosis Amer. Zool. 1994 34(), 554-61
  • Montgomery MK, McFall-Ngai MJ. Bacterial symbionts induce host organ morphogenesis during early postembryonic development of the squid Euprymna scolopes. Development 1994 120(7), 1719-29


  • Tomarev SI, Zinovieva RD, Weis VM, Chepelinsky AB, Piatigorsky J, McFall-Ngai MJ. Abundant mRNAs in the squid light organ encode proteins with a high similarity to mammalian peroxidases. Gene 1993 132(2), 219-26
  • Montgomery MJ, McFall-Ngai MJ. Embryonic development of the light organ of the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes Berry. Biol. Bull. 1993 184(3), 296-308
  • Weis VM, Montgomery MK, McFall-Ngai MJ. Enhanced production of ALDH-like protein in the bacterial light organ of the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes. Biol. Bull. 1993 184(3), 309-321
  • Dove S, Horwitz J, McFall-Ngai MJ. A biochemical characterization of the photophore lenses of the midshipman fish. J. Comp. Physiol. 1993 172(), 565-72
  • Small AL, McFall-Ngai MJ. Changes in the oxygen environment of a symbiotic squid light organ in response to infection by its luminous bacterial symbiont. Amer. Zool. 1993 33(), 61A


  • Montgomery MK, McFall-Ngai MJ. The muscle-derived lens of a squid bioluminescent organ is biochemically convergent with the ocular lens. Evidence for recruitment of aldehyde dehydrogenase as a predominant structural protein. J. Biol. Chem. 1992 267(29), 20999-1003
  • Ruby EG, McFall-Ngai MJ. A squid that glows in the night: development of an animal-bacterial mutualism. J. Bacteriol. 1992 174(15), 4865-70
  • Hensey S, McFall-Ngai MJ. A surface peptide of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri plays a key role in specificity and recognition in the symbiosis with the squid Euprymna scolopes. Amer. Zool. 1992 32(), 32A


  • Journal cover from ScienceMcFall-Ngai MJ, Ruby EG. Symbiont recognition and subsequent morphogenesis as early events in an animal-bacterial mutualism. Science 1991 254(5037), 1491-4
  • Yu N, Cai M, Lee B, Kuck J, McFall-Ngai MJ, Horwitz J. Resonance Raman detection of a carotenoid in the lens of the deep-sea hatchetfish. Exp. Eye Res. 1991 52(), 475-9
  • McFall-Ngai MJ, Toller W. Frontiers in the study of the biochemistry and molecular biology of vision and luminescence in fishes. 1991 (), 77-107
  • McFall-Ngai MJ. Luminous bacterial symbioses in fish evolution: adaptive radiation among the leiognathid fishes. 1991 (), 381-409
  • McFall-Ngai MJ, Morin JG. Camouflage by disruptive illumination in leiognathids, a family of shallow-water, bioluminescent fishes. J. Exp. Biol. 1991 156(), 119-37


  • McFall-Ngai MJ, Montgomery MK. The anatomy and morphology of the adult bacterial light organ of Euprymna scolopes Berry (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae). Biol. Bull. 1990 179(3), 332-9
  • McFall-Ngai MJ, Horwitz J. A comparative study of the thermal stability of the vertebrate eye lens: Antarctic ice fish to the desert iguana. Exp. Eye Res. 1990 50(6), 703-9
  • Ruby EG, McFall-Ngai MJ. Morphological and physiological differentiation in the luminous bacterial symbionts of Euprymna scolopes. 1990 (), 323-6
  • McFall-Ngai MJ. Crypsis in the pelagic environment. Amer. Zool. 1990 30(), 175-88
  • McFall-Ngai MJ, Ruby EG. The changing host-tissue/symbiont relationship in the developing light organ of Euprymna scolopes (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae). 1990 (),


  • McFall-Ngai MJ, Ding LL, Horwitz J. Comparative biochemistry of lens pigmentation in mesopelagic fishes. Biol. Bull. 1988 175(3), 397-402


  • Dunlap PV, McFall-Ngai MJ. Initiation and control of the bioluminescent symbiosis between Photobacterium leiognathi and leiognathid fish. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1987 503(), 269-83


  • McFall-Ngai MJ, Horwitz J, Ding LL, Lacey L. Age-dependent changes in the heat-stable crystallin, beta basic-principle, of the human lens. Curr. Eye Res. 1986 5(), 387-94
  • McFall-Ngai MJ, Crescitelli F, Childress J, Horwitz J. Patterns of pigmentation in the eye lens of the deep-sea hatchet-fish, Argyropelecus affinis Garman. J. Comp. Physiol. 1986 159(), 791-800


  • McFall-Ngai MJ, Ding LL, Takemoto LJ, Horwitz J. Spatial and temporal mapping of the age-related changes in human lens crystallins. Exp. Eye Res. 1985 41(6), 745-58
  • McFall-Ngai MJ, Ding LL, Horwitz J. Biochemical aging of human soluble lens proteins. Exp. Eye Res. 1985 41(), 745-58
  • Crescitelli F, McFall-Ngai MJ, Horwitz J. The photic adaptation hypothesis: support from organisms from different habitats. J. Comp. Physiol. 1985 157(), 323-33
  • Horwitz J, McFall-Ngai MJ, Ding LL, Yaron O. Thermal stability of lens crystallins. 1985 (), 227-40


  • Peterson JA, Benson JA, Morin JG, McFall-Ngai MJ. Scaling in tensile skeletons: scale dependent length dimensions of the mammalian Achilles tendon. J. Zool. Lond. 1984 202(), 361-72
  • McFall-Ngai MJ, Dunlap PV. External and internal sexual dimorphism in leiognathid fishes:morphological evidence for sex-specific bioluminescent signalling. J. Morph. 1984 182(), 71-83
  • Dunlap PV, McFall-Ngai MJ. Leiognathus elongatus (Perciformes:Leiognathidae): Two distinct species based on morphological and anatomical characters. Copeia 1984 4(), 884-92


  • McFall-Ngai MJ, Dunlap PV. Three new modes of luminescence in the leiognathid fish, Gazza minuta. Mar. Biol. 1983 74(), 227-37
  • McFall-Ngai MJ. Adaptations for reflection of bioluminescent light in the gas bladders of Leiognathus equulus (Perciformes:Leiognathidae). J. Exp. Zool. 1983 227(), 23-33


  • Peterson JA, Benson JA, McFall-Ngai MJ, Morin J, Ow C. Scaling in tensile skeletons: Structures with scale-independent length dimensions. Science 1982 217(), 1267-70

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Margaret McFall-Ngai & Edward Ruby

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McFall-Ngai Lab
Margaret McFall-Ngai
Phone: (808) 539-7331

Ruby Lab
Edward (Ned) Ruby
Phone: 808-539-7300